05
Fri, Jun

Requirements Year Nine to Ten

  • A Reference list and referencing is required, though staff in particular subjects may specify bibliography only if they wish.
  • The Bibliography or Reference List is placed at the end of the document
  • Use a heading “Bibliography” or “References “in bold
  • Entries are made using hanging indent
  • The Bibliography consists of a list of resources used.
    • Books: Author Last Name, Initial, Date, Name of Book, Publisher
    • Website: Author name if possible, or title of website, Date, “retrieved from”, URL (preferably as a link)
    • Note websites do not need a retrieval date unless they are rapidly changing. 
    • Items arranged in alphabetical order
    • Use italics for book titles
    • Encyclopaedias and journals require details of both the article and the place the article comes from. 
    • If multiline use hanging indent
    • Multiple authors up to seven are all written out in a Bibliography
    • Further descriptions can be provided if other types of resources are likely to be used.

 

In general at this level students are expected to do more work in determining details about resources, and more work in formatting.
Other types of work that can be described

  • Own work
  • School hand out
  • Slide Show
  • Government document
  • TV Show
  • A book of short stories
  • A book compiled from articles by different authors

Example:

Bibliography
Clarety, N. (2008). Waxing and Waning explained, Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://britannica.com/waxingwaning 
 
Rackham, C. (1997). Hide a spoon, find the moon. My Way Inc

Steadman, M (2013). Moon Illusions and Circadian Rhythm, Journal of Psychology, 17, 223-225. Retrieved from https://www.jstore.com/item230-199

Ten odd things about the moon, (2000). Retrieved from https://www.bluemoon.com.au 

Details

Book 
 Author last name, initial. (Published date). Name of the book. Publisher of the book
 Multiple authors: list surname and initial of each for the Bibliography. Puntuation exactly as in the example.
 Black, H. (2001). The moon is not made of cheese. Baskins and Robbins Publishing

 

Website
 

Author last name, initial, (Published date). Title of the page or article. “Retrieved from” followed by the URL

If no date then just leave the date out.

If no author then use the title of the site in place of the authors name. The examples below show the preferred format at the top and the less desired formats following.

 

Tippin, B. (2000). Ten odd things about the moon, Retrieved from https://www.bluemoon.com.au 

Tippin, B. Ten odd things about the moon, Retrieved from https://www.bluemoon.com.au 

Ten odd things about the moon, (2000). Retrieved from https://www.bluemoon.com.au 

 

 Periodical
 

Author last name, initial, (Published date). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, Journal number, page numbers. “Retrieved from” followed by the URL for articles found online.

If the URL is excessively long either provide the URL of the parent site only or type the words “this location” and create a hyperlink using the long URL.

 Steadman, M (2013). Moon Illusions and Circadian Rhythm, Journal of Psychology, 17, 223-225. Retrieved from https://www.jstore.com/item230-199

 

Referencing


Referencing is used when another author’s idea is directly referred to or when another author’s work is quoted. Referencing may also be used to indicate a source for knowledge beyond the public domain or that is controversial.


There are two ways to reference, Footnote and In-line. Both are required at school (in different faculties). Students need to learn to use both. In-line is preferred if there are no other considerations. In-line does not require any special word processing skills. To create a footnote in a word processor it is important to use the built in footnote capability. This will create a number in the text, create an entry at the bottom of the page where you can type the footnote, and most importantly keep the footnote on the correct page when editing.

In each case we will use a code from the Bibliography to refer to an entry in the Bibliography. A reader who wants to follow up a reference will thus need to look at the Bibliography for more details. Thus the Bibliography needs to be created as you reference or before you reference.


The code we use is normally the Author surname and the publication date. Consider a book is entered as follows:

Black, H. (2001). The moon is not made of cheese. Baskins Publishing

In either the footnote or in-line reference we will talk about Black (2001). This code uniquely points to that one book in the Bibliography.
If we have TWO books by Black both written in (2001) we list them as (a) and (b) in the Bibliography

Black, H. (2001a). The moon is not made of cheese. Baskins Publishing
Black, H. (2001b). The sky is to ponder. Baskins Publishing

If we cannot find an author’s name (more likely for a website) we use part of the title as the code. It is best to include a publish date if available.

Footnote style for a quote:
Black asserts that “the moon is likely made of frozen yoghurt”1.

In-line style for a quote:
Black (2001) asserts that “the moon is likely made of frozen yoghurt” (p. 28).

As you can see in both cases we provide the “code” that will allow the reader to identify which book in the Bibliography you are referring to. A page number is required for a quote. A page number is not easily provided for a webpage so normally is not expected.

Short quotes are incorporated in the sentence flow. Longer quotes (over one sentence) are indented and start on a new line.
The process is similar for referring to an author’s ideas, but no page number is required.

Footnote style for referring to an idea
A number of writers such as Black2 have suggestions about the composition of the moon that exclude the cheese option.

In-line style for referring to an idea
A number of writers such as Black (2001) have suggestions about the composition of the moon that exclude the cheese option.

___________________________

1Black (2001) p. 28
2Black(2001)